To completely eliminate the remaining vehicle blind spot at the nearside, a camera monitoring system must be fitted, regardless of whether mirrors are fitted. Incab monitors must be positioned close to a window edge or existing mirror location (without obscuring the view through the window) to minimise the time the driver needs to take their eyes off the road to see the monitor. A mirror replacement camera system may also be used as an alternative to fitting Class V and VI mirrors. Monitors only intended to show blind spots related to low speed manoeuvring, such as mirror replacement cameras, may switch off at speeds above 20mph. An additional camera monitoring system does not need to be fitted where one already exists in the vehicle, such as to replace mirrors, and the same safety benefits are achieved. UNECE Regulation 46 (Class V and VI mirror replacement camera monitoring systems) provides more information about the quality of monitor images.
Blind spot information systems must be fitted to the vehicle to ensure full coverage down the nearside of the vehicle. Sensors must not activate in response to roadside furniture or stationary vehicles where a collision is imminent. For articulated vehicles, sensors must be suitably positioned on the tractor unit to provide sufficient coverage of the nearside of the combination but without being activated by the trailer itself. Sensors must enable detection in the defined zone, and this will extend rearward to areas adjacent to a semi-trailer. This can be achieved in the way that works best for the technology supplier and the vehicle operator
Vehicles must have a front sensor system that activates a proximity information signal to the driver, detecting pedestrians or cyclists entering the critical blind spot area in front of the vehicle when the subject vehicle is stationary with the brakes applied. This signal must be escalated to a collision warning if the driver begins to prepare the vehicle to move off from a resting position. Front sensor systems must be ‘active’ and able to react to the presence of vulnerable road users. They must not provide false alarms. The system must provide a visual signal to show that it has detected a vulnerable road user in the detection area, as specified in the technical specifications. If the vehicle then moves off with the vulnerable road user detected, then a collision becomes imminent, and an audible alarm signal should sound.
Vehicles must be fitted with audible warning equipment to make nearby pedestrians, cyclists and other road users aware that the vehicle intends to carry out a turning manoeuvre. The volume of the audible warning, measured at one metre from the sounder, should be between 65 and 88 decibels/dB(A). Operators should consider fitting an audible warning system that combines spoken warnings and white noise. It is recommended that audible warning devices require minimal driver intervention. The device should have a manual on/off switch for use between the hours of 23:30 and 07:00. For left-hand drive vehicles, the audible vehicle manoeuvring warning must be fitted to warn people walking and cycling when a vehicle is turning right.
Warning signage as shown below must be displayed on the rear of the rigid vehicle and any trailer unit in use, not the front tractor unit. This must be designed to warn people walking and cycling of the hazards posed when near the vehicle. The signage must not be offensive or give instructional advice to people walking and cycling. The text point size must be legible to a cyclist or pedestrian at a reasonable distance from the vehicle. Signage used should be of at least A3 size.
Vehicles must be fitted with appropriate side under-run protection to minimise the severity of under-run collisions. This must be provided on both sides of the vehicle unless it would be demonstrably impractical on one side. Operators should consider improved sideguard design, such as flat panel sideguard protection. Any side under-run protection installed must comply with the requirements of UNECE Regulation 73